Iliopsoas Bursitis Anatomy
Of all sports injuries that occur, hip and pelvic injuries account for 2-5% with musculotendinous injuries (where the muscle and tendon joint) being the most common. The 2 most common iliopsoas injuries are iliopsoas tendinitis and iliopsoas bursitis and most injuries occur at the top of your femur (around the lesser trochanter and tendon of the iliopsoas).
Iliopsoas injuries are not very common and poorly recognized as a cause of hip and groin pain. Females tend to be more prone to iliopsoas injuries than men.
Your hip flexors are among the most powerful muscles and tendons in your body. They are comprised of your iliopsoas (deep set muscles at the front of your hip), your tensor fasciae latae (outer hip muscle), and your rectus femoris and sartorius (they lie over top of the iliopsoas muscles in your front, upper thigh area). Hip flexors help you lift your upper leg to your torso or flex your torso towards your thigh (like when sitting up from a lying down position), they externally rotate your spine and thigh bone, and also limit your hip extension when walking or running.
Although it is often regarded as a single muscle, the iliopsoas is comprised of 2 muscles: the psoas major and the iliacus (psoas minor - weak flexor muscle) which lie deep beneath your skin surface. The psoas muscle lies at the front of your hip. It starts in your lower back, attaches to the base of your sacrum (triangular bone that forms the bottom of your spine and the back part of your pelvis) on the inner surface of your ilium (the upper and widest part of the pelvis/hip bone) and ends on the top of your femur (thigh bone). The iliacus starts from your hip bone/ilium, and attaches across to the inner surface of your lower spine and sacrum. It also ends at the top of your femur. Both of these muscles come together via the same tendon (thick, fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone) and attach to the bump on the inside of the shaft of your femur (the lesser trochanter) - this is where most injuries occur.
Iliopsoas Tendonitis and Iliopsoas Bursitis
Iliopsoas Tendonitis involves inflammation and irritation of your iliopsoas tendon and the area surrounding your tendon. Is a result of chronic micro-trauma to the iliopsoas tendon from overuse and repetitive activities which are common in sporting activities.
Iliopsoas Bursitis affects the bursa underneath the tendon of your iliopsoas muscle, which becomes inflamed and irritated when your iliopsoas muscle is used.
Iliopsoas tendinitis and iliopsoas bursitis are similar and often occur at the same time as inflammation of the tendon often causes inflammation of the bursa and vice versa. Both of these conditions demonstrate similar symptoms, and are less common that other groin strains.
Iliopsoas Syndrome refers to a stretch, tear or complete rupture of your iliopsoas muscle and tendon where the tendon attaches to your thigh bone, frequently experienced along with iliopsoas bursitis. It is rare for your iliopsoas muscle-tendon to rupture completely.
Conditions and symptoms related to iliopsoas bursitis are snapping hip syndrome, trochanteric bursitis, torn hip labrum, neuromyofascial tightness, iliopsoas tendinopathy, lumbar spine abnormalities, iliopsoas syndrome, iliopsoas tendinitis, inflammation of the tendon, anterior hip pain, groin pain, rheumatoid arthritis, hip fractures, hip overuse syndrome, lumbosacral injuries, osteitis pubis or a groin injury.